Milialar: Causes, Types, Treatment, and Prevention

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Milia, often known as "milialar," are small, harmless cysts that appear just under the skin. These tiny white or yellow bumps are most commonly found on the face, particularly around the eyes, cheeks, and lips. While milia are generally harmless and painless, understanding their causes, types, and treatment options can help manage and prevent them effectively.

Causes of Milialar

Milia develop when dead skin cells become trapped beneath the skin's surface. This can occur due to natural skin shedding or external factors such as:

  • Sun Damage: Prolonged sun exposure can damage the skin and contribute to the formation of milia.
  • Injury: Skin injuries, including burns and rashes, can lead to milia.
  • Medications: Certain medications, particularly long-term use of topical steroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause milia.
  • Skin Conditions: Skin diseases like rosacea or conditions that cause blistering can also result in milia.

Types of Milialar

There are two main types of milia: primary and secondary.

  1. Primary Milia: These develop spontaneously and are more common in newborns and young children, though adults can also be affected. Types of primary milia include:

    • Congenital Milia: Typically found on the face of newborns, especially the nose.
    • Benign Primary Milia: Occur spontaneously on the eyelids, cheeks, and forehead in children and adults.
    • Milia en Plaque: A rare type seen in middle-aged women, characterized by clusters of milia on a patch of skin.
    • Multiple Eruptive Milia: This rare condition causes itchy clusters of milia on the face, upper arms, and abdomen.
    • Genodermatosis-associated Milia: Linked to genetic conditions like Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  2. Secondary Milia: These develop due to skin injury, medication use, or skin diseases. Types of secondary milia include:

    • Disease-associated Milia: Occur with blistering skin diseases.
    • Medication-associated Milia: Result from long-term use of certain medications.
    • Trauma-associated Milia: Common after skin injuries such as burns or radiotherapy.

Treatment of Milialar

While milia are generally harmless and often resolve on their own, treatment options are available for those who wish to remove them for cosmetic reasons or if they cause discomfort. These include:

  • Extraction: A dermatologist uses a sterile needle or scalpel to make a tiny cut and apply pressure to remove the milia.
  • Chemical Peels: Exfoliants like glycolic acid, lactic acid, and salicylic acid help shed old skin cells and prevent milia.
  • Retinoids: Topical retinoids, derived from vitamin A, can be used to treat certain types of milia, such as milia en plaque.

Prevention of Milialar

Although it is not always possible to prevent milia, certain steps can help reduce the likelihood of their development:

  • Daily Skincare: Wash your face daily with warm water and a gentle cleanser. Pat the skin dry gently.
  • Sun Protection: Use sunscreen with at least SPF 30 when spending time outdoors to protect the skin from sun damage.
  • Avoid Heavy Products: Refrain from using heavy, oil-based skincare products that can clog pores.
  • Infant Skincare: For newborns, avoid using products meant for adults on their sensitive skin.


Milialar, or milia, are small cysts that form when dead skin cells become trapped under the skin's surface. While they are common in newborns, they can affect individuals of all ages. Understanding the causes, types, and treatment options for milia can help manage and prevent their occurrence. If milia persist or cause discomfort, consult a dermatologist for professional removal and advice on preventive measures.

By incorporating these insights into your skincare routine, you can better manage milialar and maintain healthier, clearer skin.


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